Bonhoeffer uses a similar phrase 'worldly Christianity'. It's J Gresham Machen that I want to line up most closely with. See his Christianity and culture here. Having done commentaries on Proverbs (Heavenly Wisdom) and Song of Songs (Heavenly Love), a matching title for Ecclesiastes would be Heavenly Worldliness. For my stance on worldliness, see 3 posts here.

Banner 2012 10

Sadly, Ted Donnelly was not able to take his intended final session and so Iain Murray stepped in to take the first session of the final morning. He spoke on controversies. Rich with references to church history and appropriate quotations he had several good things to say. (It will not be immediately clear why each quotation was given but they are worth reading anyway).
J Gresham Machen
"If we face the real situation in the Church and in the world, and decide, despite that situation, to stand firmly for the gospel of Christ, we shall be very likely indeed to find ourselves engaged in controversy. But if we are going to avoid controversy, we might as well close our Bibles; for the New Testament is a controversial book practically from beginning to end. The New Testament writers and our Lord Himself presented truth in sharp contrast with error , and indeed that is the only way in which truth can be presented in any clear and ringing way. I do not know all the things that will happen when the great revival sweeps over the Church, the great revival for which we long. Certainly I do not know when that revival will come; its coming stands in the Spirit's power. But about one thing that will happen when that blessing comes I think we c an be fairly sure. When a great and true revival comes in the Church, the present miserable, feeble talk about avoidance of contorversy on the part of the servants of Jesus Christ will all be swept away as with a mighty flood.
Luther
The Holy Spirit is not a sceptic, nor are what he has written on our hearts doubts or opinions, but assertions more certain, and more firm, than life itself and all human experience.
Archibald Alexander
"About this time General Posey had a mill built on his plantation, and the millwright was a Baptist by the name of Waller, a brother, I think, of a famous Baptist preacher called Jack Waller. I often talked with this man about his business and other matters ; but one day he unexpectedly turned to me and asked me whether I believed that before a man could enter the kingdom of heaven he must be born again. I knew not what to say, for I had for some time been puzzled about the new birth. However, I answered in the affirmative. He then asked whether I had experienced the new birth. I hesitated, and said, ' Not that I knew of.' ' Ah,' said he, ' if you had ever experienced this change you would know something about it ! ' Here the conversation ended ; but it led me to think more seriously whether there were any such change. It seemed to be in the Bible ; but I thought there must be some method of explaining it away ; for among the Presbyterians I had never heard of any one who had experienced the new birth, nor could I recollect ever to have heard it mentioned."
Benefits of controversy
1. God permits and sends this that things may be clarified
Latimer - Be of good comfort, Master Ridley, and play the man; we shall this day light such a candle, by God’s grace, in England, as I trust shall never be put out.
2. It brings divisions that are necessary and a blessing
Charles Hodge
God allows errors to arise, most of which will be found to be bottomed upon false deductions and consequences drawn out of the Word, many opinions built and fastened upon them. And God allows this to bring us back to the original, the Word of God, that there we might rectify all. It is a great consolation to know that dissensions... are not fortuitous, but are ordered by the providence of God, and are designed, as storms, for the purpose of purification. 
Dangers of controversy
1. Not discriminating between central truths and less necessary
2. Being distracted by what is not profitable
John Brown of Haddington
"I look upon the Secession as indeed the cause of God, but sadly mismanaged and dishonoured by myself and others. Alas! for that pride, passion, selfishness, and unconcern for the glory of Christ, and spiritual edification of souls, which has so often prevailed! Alas! for our want of due meekness, gentleness, holy zeal, self-denial, hearty grief for sin, compassion to souls in immediate connexion with us, or left in the established church, which became distinguished witnesses for Christ. Alas! that we did not chiefly strive to pray better, preach better, and live better than our neighbours.
3. Treating matters of belief as the only priority
4. Underestimating how much combustible material in all our hearts
Archibald Alexander
"It has long been remarked, that no spirit is more pungent and bitter than that of theologians in their contentions with one another; and it has often happened, that the less the difference, the more virulent the acrimony."
R Candlish
"For, apart from love, brotherly love in itself and by itself is not necessarily a virtue. Nay, it may be sin. It degenerates into sectarianism, partisanship, and the poor esprit de corps of a school, a class, a clan, a coterie. It worships idols of the tribe, the palace, the theatre, the cave. You love as brethren those who happen to agree with you in holding certain opinions, cultivating certain tastes, pursuing certain ends. You love them as brethren merely on the ground of that agreement. You draw together; you club together; you frequent one another's company; you take pleasure in associating with one another, in helping one another, and in serving one another. This is quite natural, and so far, all right. Congeniality of disposition, similarity of pursuits, obviously tend to create intimacy; and within due limits, that tendency is safe and good. But if that is all - if the bond of brotherhood is thus merely natural and human - if your unity is simply the result of your unanimity - if it springs out of yourselves, and, as it is almost sure to do, centres in yourselves; it may make you strong as an ecclesiastical corporation; it may make you proud and happy as a more choice and select spiritual company, dwelling apart, nearer the throne than many. But it does not enlarge or elevate the heart. Nor does it free the soul from the yoke of self. It is itself, in fact, little better than a sort of enlarged selfishness. It does not ascend heavenward. It draws down earthward what is heavenly. It is of the earth, earthy.
5. Not foreseeing the troubles that can come into the church with controversy
In conclusion he spoke of knowing yourself (some are too slow to enter controversy some too quick) and the need of repentance. He also quoted a letter by John Newton which can be found here.

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