I think the attraction is the way the voice is so sweet yet retains a smokiness at the same time. her way of punching out the word then fading works well. Also the backing is quite sophisticated, drawing on jazz and country, etc, but not demanding anything from the hearer at all (may be that's it's Achilles heel for some). great pop.
You can see Rosie's Lullaby here and get the info that i-tunes doesn't seem to give you.
(Not too late? The majority of popular music is sold in December)
1. Professor Helm accused some modern scholars of failing to read Hodge properly and spoke of a veritable 'Hodge derision' industry. Kevin Van Hoozer was one cited by name. Hodge certainly believed in the inductive method of approaching Scripture - taking the data of Scripture and using the human mind to draw conclusions but people today often throw their hands up in horror at such a method.
Hodge in fact was not naive but recognised the difficulties in his task. (He himself uses the phrase 'no easy task').
He speaks too of dogmatic and speculative difficulties that we bring to Scripture when we either come to it with our minds already made up about things or fall into mysticism, on one hand, or philosophising on the other.
2. Professor Helm's plea then was for a reaffirmation of the fact that the Bible is objectively true. Though for sociological purposes the government and others may consider evangelicals to be a sect we are in fact people who stand on the objective truth of Scripture. It is a mistake to think that if a thing is objectively true it must be provable. Some things are not of that nature. We need to remember the Reformation view that 'councils have erred' and recognise our own fallibility without surrendering the idea that Scripture itself is infallible and inerrant. We are always 'on the way' as Hodge recognised but we do have the truth.
In his closing remarks Dr Helm urged us to check out what peole really say and not rely too much on secondary sources. When we find a scholar misrepresenting his source we should ask where he is really getting his ideas from. We need to recognise that in Scripture we find truth not just opinions. We must be determined to make a disciplined study of it.
A helpful brief time of discussion followed. It was nice to meet old friends and others including a young American man studying in Brighton present with his wife and baby son. There is another lecture on Feb 26 at the Library when Mostyn Roberts will be looking at Francis Schaeffer.
See under comments on Mt 27:33-38; Mk 15:22-28; Lk 23:33-38
Then were crucified with him two robbers. It was the finishing stroke of the lowest disgrace when Christ was executed between two robbers; for they assigned him the most prominent place, as if he had been the prince of robbers. If he had been crucified apart from the other malefactors, there might have appeared to be a distinction between his case and theirs; but now he is not only confounded with them, but raised aloft, as if he had been by far the most detestable of all. On this account Mark applies to him the prediction of Isaiah, (53:12) he was reckoned among transgressors; for the prophet expressly says concerning Christ, that he will deliver his people, not by pomp and splendour, but because he will endure the punishment due to their sins. In order that he might free us from condemnation, this kind of expiation was necessary, that he might place himself in our room. Here we perceive how dreadful is the weight of the wrath of God against sins, for appeasing which it became necessary that Christ, who is eternal justice, should be ranked with robbers. We see, also, the inestimable love of Christ towards us, who, in order that he might admit us to the society of the holy angels, permitted himself to be classed as one of the wicked.
2. Expect them to rely on mere worldly assets
To add to his prestige Adonijah ‘got chariots and horses ready, with fifty men to run ahead of him’. It created an aura of power and prestige. Such pretenders know how to shine. Just in case we are tempted to be impressed the writer adds (verse 6) 'His father had never interfered with him by asking, Why do you behave as you do? He was also very handsome and was born next after Absalom.'
The parallel with his brothers Amnon and Absalom should alert us to the problem. Amnon was similarly left to find his own level by David and ended up raping his half-sister. In response, you may recall, Absalom killed Amnon. Absalom then staged a coup and forced David to retreat from Jerusalem into the desert. He too was a handsome man (like Saul and David’s eldest brother Eliab). Worldly considerations like impressive parades and good looks should not sway our judgement, but sadly they often do. We cannot appoint leaders on such a flimsy basis.
3. Expect them to find support
In verse 7 we are told ‘Adonijah conferred with Joab son of Zeruiah and with Abiathar the priest, and they gave him their support.’ He was not short of backers. The Head of the military and the High Priest, no less, were behind him. Joab is perhaps no surprise but one would have hoped more from Abiathar.
This reminds us that from both likely and unlikely sources pretenders are able to summon support. How often are people fooled into following false teachers just because certain people back them. That is why politicians are so eager to enlist the commendation of pop stars and sportsmen. This extends to religion. Because, say, Madonna follows the Kabbalah or Tom Cruise accepts scientology then some people are willing to give it credence. If some respected Christian leader commends a book or a cause it has a big influence. This is understandable but we must not make the mistake of thinking that such things prove that a cause must be right.
John Wesley was a fine evangelist but certain aspects of his doctrine do not bear close scrutiny. Something similar could be said of Richard Baxter and other great men of the past. And even the finest Christian leader will have some flaw or blind spot in his thinking or actions. A perusal of the lives of the saints in the Bible confirms that.
In verse 8 we read ‘But Zadok the priest, Benaiah son of Jehoiada, Nathan the prophet, Shimei and Rei and David’s special guard did not join Adonijah.’ Before we get taken up with anyone’s ‘verse 7 qualifications’ we need to check their ‘verse 8 ones’ too, as it were. Look both at who supports and who does not support a person. We cannot ultimately make decisions on the basis of who is for or against something but it can help us to get our bearings.
4. Expect them to seek to establish themselves in worldly ways
In order to establish his claims Adonijah did what many would-be leaders have done. He had a big party.
9, 10 'Adonijah then sacrificed sheep, cattle and fattened calves at the Stone of Zoheleth near En Rogel. He invited all his brothers, the king’s sons, and all the men of Judah who were royal officials, but he did not invite Nathan the prophet or Benaiah or the special guard or his brother Solomon.'
The true king was deliberately excluded. Again big meetings and lavish displays can take in the unwary. Remember Hitler once more. No-one put on larger or more spectacular rallies than he. It is superficial to be impressed by such things. They are all show and have no place for the true king.
5. Expect them eventually to fail and be brought down
What happened to Adonijah comes out at the end. When he and his guests heard that Solomon had been appointed as king (49) ‘Adonijah’s guests rose in alarm and dispersed.’ All his support came to nothing. As for Adonijah himself he (50) ‘in fear of Solomon, went and took hold of the horns of the altar.’ The Temple was then thought of, as it might be now, as a place of sanctuary. Pretenders will cling to anything when they are going down. Solomon is told the situation and he says (52) ‘If he shows himself to be a worthy man, not a hair of his head will fall to the ground; but if evil is found in him, he will die.’
Solomon then has Adonijah brought to him. He bows down to the true king before being sent home. It is a picture of the way one day every knee will bow to the True King, including those who have set themselves up as false teachers and wicked leaders opposed to the True King Jesus. You too will bow one day if you have not already done so. Humble yourself now in this life before it is too late. Do not for a moment put your faith in those who will inevitably lead you astray.
As I said when I began this blog we don't get to the cinema often. It was Dydd Santes Ddwynwen yesterday, however, and so we went to see Miss Potter. It's been out a while now but if you get a chance .... It really is brilliant. Interesting, funny, well cast, moving, brilliant sets and scenery, 'U' certificate (though not for kids - the one steamy scene [!] appears in the trailer). I think it's pretty correct historically. Even the animation works, which I wasn't sure about.
The self-titled 1977 Jan Akkerman album features more jazz than classical music. The title Pavane, however, shows where Jan had been musically and Gate to Europe, featuring acoustic guitar and strings, is in classical vein. Something similar could be said of the album Eli made with Kaz Lux in 1976.
In 1978 Jan made an album with the German classical arranger and composer Claus Ogerman (b 1930). Later bearing various titles, the album was originally called Aranjuez. That title drew attention to the opening track – the adagio from the Concierto de Aranjuez by blind Spanish composer Joaquin Rodrigo (1901-1999), an inevitable choice perhaps. Other classical composers featured are Heitor Villa-Lobos (1887-1959). Author of over 2000 works, this experimental Brazilian composer drew on folk music and many diverse sources. Here Jan plays The Prelude from Modinha and The seed of God from Magdalena. Track four on the album is by 17th Century guitarist and composer Gaspar Sanz (1640-1710). He published one of the earliest books on guitar playing in 1694, Espanoleta. That track is followed by Pavane pour une infante defunte, an early work (1899) originally for piano, by French composer Maurice Ravel (1875-1937).
From 1978 there was perhaps something of a retreat from classical themes, although one does find such themes, for example, in Valdez on Pleasure Point (1981) and on the 1987 album Heartware in Winterborn Lyric and Firenze. It comes out, less obviously in Prima Donna from Art of Noise (1990), which is apparently about the opera singer Maria Callas.
With the release of the excellent Focus in Time in 1997 we return to classical themes big time. The opening track, Home voyage and the closing track I’ll find my own way home (the sleeve notes describe it as 'Acid Bach') are based on parts of Bach’s Goldberg Variations (BWV 988)and Well Tempered Clavier 1 (BWV 846-869). Three other classical composers are also plundered. Aprés un Rêve (Op 7 No 1) written in 1877 is adapted from French composer and organist Gabriel-Urbain Fauré (1845-1924) as is Elegy (from Op 20). The song for Akkerman’s daughter Laurie Anne is adapted from Norwegian Edvard Grieg (1843-1907) and Leading me there from W A Mozart (1756-1791). (Jan himself told me how he inadvertently sent the late Rick Van Der Linden who features on the track, on a wild goose chase looking for the air in the works of Bach instead of Mozart!). Wildflower, Akkerman’s own composition, also has something of a classical air.
The unplugged guitar album Live at the Priory, issued the following year, has many classical pieces. Wildflower is conjoined with the charming Altogether … Oh that! from Mother Focus. We have mentioned the Dowland piece. Le Clochard is prefaced by the appropriate Classical gas, a hit for Mason Williams back in 1968. Firenze is partnered by the jazz standard Autumn Leaves.
Some of these tracks feature on the 1999 unplugged studio album Passion. In addition there is the Bach derived title track best known through the hymn O sacred head sore wounded; two tracks from Anthony Holborne (Countess of Pembrook’s Paradise and Muy Linda) and the anonymous piece labelled Knight of the Lute. The distinctive final track includes part of the Liebestraum (No 3) by Franz Liszt (1811-1886). Written around 1847 it is his most famous piece.
The plaque records sections from his journal entry for May 24, 1738:
What occurred on Wednesday, the 24th, I think best to relate at large, after premising what may make it the better understood. Let him that cannot receive it ask the Father of lights that he would give more light to him and me. ...
I think it was about five this morning that I opened my Testament on those words: δι ων τα μεγιστα ημιν και τιμια επαγγελματα δεδωρηται ινα δια τουτων γενησθε θειας κοινωνοι φυσεως αποφυγοντες της εν κοσμω εν επιθυμια φθορας - ‘There are given unto us exceeding great and precious promises, even that ye should be partakers of the divine nature.’ Just as I went out I opened it again on those words, ‘Thou art not far from the kingdom of the God.’
In the afternoon I was asked to go to St Paul’s [it's just around the corner]. The anthem was, "Out of the deep have I called unto thee, O Lord: Lord, hear my voice. O let thine ears consider well the voice of my complaint. If thou, Lord, wilt be extreme to mark what is done amiss, O Lord, who may abide it? But there is mercy with thee; therefore thou shalt be feared. O Israel, trust in the Lord: for with the Lord there is mercy, and with him is plenteous redemption. And he shall redeem Israel from all his sins."
14. In the evening I went very unwillingly to a society in Aldersgate Street, where one was reading Luther’s Preface to the Epistle to the Romans. About a quarter before nine, while he was describing the change which God works in the heart through faith in Christ, I felt my heart strangely warmed. I felt I did trust in Christ, Christ alone for salvation, and an assurance was given me that he had taken away my sins, even mine, and saved me from the law of sin and death.
For more see here.
Eleri's watching TV with our eldest (17) after a hard day's work around the house. He's been writing an essay on Shakespeare's Much ado about nothing. The next two are in bed about to go off (I hope). Number two (13) says he's aching all over after doing school rugby training down at Old Deer Park (the London Welsh ground) with ex-England players Brian Moore and Jeremy Guscott. (They won a BBC competition). He came back with a nice autographed ball and was on local TV. The two youngest are tucked up in bed. They had no school today as a tree has half come down in last week's winds and was being dealt with by a tree surgeon today. They had a friend round for most of the day and found plenty of fun things to do as well as homework. Number four (8) has been researching the London plague and fire of the 1660s and preparing a 'show and tell' on the baseball match we went to see last summer in the US.
Akkerman’s most famous period was with Focus in the 1970s. He remarkably finished the At the Rainbow concert by coming on stage and performing a Dowland piece on solo lute. See here. He had become interested in the instrument through seeing Julian Bream in concert. It seems that the live act often included a Menuett from J S Bach (1685-1750) and the fourth movement of the Concerto for Orchestra by Hungarian composer Bela Bartok (1881-1945), among other things classical, that were never released. Akkerman expressed particular appreciation for Bach and for Bartok's Concerto and Third Piano Concerto. In an interview from the period he neatly sums up the difference between the two. Bach, he says, sought to make earthly music and made heavenly, while Bartok sought to make heavenly music and made beautiful earthly music.
It was apparently intended that Eruption should include adaptations from Bartok but his family refused permission. At least one listener has spotted a lift from the opera Orpheus and Euridice by Monteverdi (1567-1643) and believes there is also a quotation from the opera of the same name by Christoph Willibald Gluck (1714-1787).
Turning to Akkerman’s solo output we remind ourselves that his very first release, aged 15, was a rocked up version of Melody in F (but played in 'A') by American classical pianist Arthur Rubinstein (1887-1982). We can make similar divisions to those above. The albums vary in classical content from some (eg Tabernakel) that are full of it to others (eg CU) that appear to have none at all.
Guitar for Sale, the debut album, gives only a slight hint of classicism with the Jewish traditional Hineimatov. The next two albums have several classical themes. Profile (1972) is very diverse and shows plenty of evidence of Akkerman’s classical training on the second side where four of seven tracks are in a classical style for solo guitar or lute. First, the anonymous Kemp’s jig, on lute. William Kemp was apparently a Shakespearian actor who came to fame with his nine days wonder - a morris dance performed from London to Norwich in the days of Elizabeth I. Then comes an etude by Matteo Carcassi (1792-1853), a leading 19th Century guitarist-composer. Born in Florence he began as a pianist but changed to guitar, beginning a concert career in Germany in 1810. He moved from place to place but was eventually based in Paris where he died. His fame there rivalled that of Carulli, though the two differed greatly in technique and style. Carcassi left almost a hundred works for guitar, all of romantic taste, brilliant and technically demanding. His Method (Op 59) is still considered among the best didactic works of 19th Century guitar masters and his etudes (Op 60) are popular. Track four is by Austrian composer Antonio Diabelli (1781-1858). Andante Sostenuto, as its title suggests, is slow and sustained. It is from a Guitar Sonata (Op 29 No 3) and is described by one aficionado as ‘almost too beautiful to be true’. The sixth track is a short lute composition of Akkerman’s own - Minstrel/Farmers dance.
To be continued
Licensed by the Glasgow presbytery he assisted Dr MacDuff at Sandyford church, Glasgow for a short while then became minister of Innellan church on the Firth of Clyde, in Argyll, where he remained for 18 years, his preaching gifts rapidly maturing. For a period he grew dissatisfied with the Calvinist theology he was nurtured in and was tempted, he later revealed, to reject religion entirely. Studies in Hegelian philosophy apparently kept him from agnosticism.
With a brilliant memory, he wrote hundreds of articles and many books with the help of a secretary or, later, by braille and typewriter. His first book in 1874 was anonymous. Aids to the Study of German Theology attempted to show liberal theology to be positive and constructive. It passed into three editions in as many years. In 1877 The Growth of the Spirit of Christianity, a two volume philosophical presentation of the history of the church to the Reformation appeared. Natural Elements of Revealed Theology (Baird lecture, 1881) used comparative religion to defend Christianity and the 18812 St Giles lecture was on Confucianism. Can the Old Faith Live with the New? or, The Problem of Evolution and Revelation (1885) argued that accepting evolution would not undermine the faith. He also wrote popular devotional books. My Aspirations (1883) and Words by the Wayside (1896) were both translated into German. His Sacred Songs appeared in 1890, his famous hymn being in the third edition (1904).
In October 1885 he was invited to Balmoral by Queen Victoria to preach for her. She had his sermon on Job published. In 1879 he had declined an invitation to be a minister in London, but in 1886 moved to St Bernard's, Edinburgh, where he was very successful. Despite his handicap, he was a dramatic preacher, many not realising he was blind. In 1897 poor health led him to seek assistance and in 1899 he retired, devoting his latter years mostly to study and writing. He received an honorary DD, 1879 and a LLD, 1902 and in 1890 was elected fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.
Other theological works include The Psalmist and the Scientist, or, The Modern Value of the Religious Sentiment (1887), popularising views found in Can the Old Faith Live with the new? The Distinctive Messages of the Old Religions (1892). The Lady Ecclesia (1896) is an allegory on the development of the spirit of Christ in the church and the individual. Studies of the Portrait of Christ (Vol 1, 1899; vol 2, 1900), was a popular book, characteristic of him.
His learning was varied rather than profound. He is said to have been more of a visionary than a balanced judge. His strength lay in his 'vivid apprehension of the factors which make the Christian personality, rather than in constructive doctrinal statement'. He has been called 'a conspicuous and effective representative of liberal theology'. Invariably radiant and cheerful, he was a great optimist though sometimes tempted to despair. Never married, he lived with his eldest sister Jane, to whom he attributed much of his happiness and success. She kept house for him, helped him with the parish and wrote essays and early sermons at his dictation.
He died suddenly of apoplexy on holiday in North Berwick in 1906. He was buried in Glasgow. A biography by D McMillan appeared in 1907.The hymnHe wrote Oh Love that wilt not let me go on the day of a sister's marriage. He always credited Dr Peace who wrote the music for it, with much of the praise for its success. When it appeared in a hymn book for the first time he was asked to change the word 'climb' as in 'I climb the rainbow through the storm' to 'trace' which he willingly agreed to, though some have criticised him for it.
Writing of the hymn's composition Matheson said it was composed
on the evening of the 6th of June, 1882, when I was 40 years of age. I was alone in the manse at that time. It was the night of my sister’s marriage, and the rest of the family were staying overnight in Glasgow. Something happened to me, which was known only to myself, and which caused me the most severe mental suffering. The hymn was the fruit of that suffering. It was the quickest bit of work I ever did in my life. I had the impression of having it dictated to me by some inward voice rather than of working it out myself. I am quite sure that the whole work was completed in five minutes, and equally sure that it never received at my hands any retouching or correction. I have no natural gift of rhythm. All the other verses I have ever written are manufactured articles; this came like a day spring from on high.Many conjectures have been made as to the 'mental distress' he suffered. Probably because of the opening line it is suggested he had been bitterly disappointed in his hopes of marrying a young woman to whom he had become deeply attached. It is said that she refused to marry because he was blind. If there was such an incident it would surely have occurred years before. Other suggestions are a bereavement or a concern over the inroads of Darwinism into the church. As with Paul's 'thorn in the flesh' we do not know.
Other lines perhaps worth mentioning are the final ones - 'I lay in dust life’s glory dead, And from the ground there blossoms red Life that shall endless be.' I must confess that I always took it to mean 'I lie in dust, life's glory dead,' but, of course, the English words 'lie' and 'lay' have different meanings and Matheson means 'I lay life's glory in the dust' - a much more evangelical thought.
The more one looks for this religious element the more one sees it. It is there in a title like Carmen Elysium (Introspection 2) for example (later reworked as P’s March on Ship of Memories) and in a track like La Cathedrale de Strasbourg which is ostensibly about camping holidays but has bells, church organ and an 'Amen'. What about his penchant for speaking and singing in tongues, evidenced on some more recent recordings? In a 2006 interview Van Leer made a rare reference to being Jewish. Such a revelation may come as a surprise when one considers the amount of Christian harmony in his output, however a closer listen might perhaps reveal a strand of Jewishness making up yet another element in the Van Leer repertoire and proving a further factor to note when considering what makes it so attractive.
On first reading, it seems a slightly strange chapter in some ways. It appears to leap into the middle of things rather. The history to be found in the Books of Samuel (about Samuel, Saul and David) is assumed. A feature of the chapter is that it contains a number of speeches – from Nathan, Bathsheba and David. There is also a lot of repetition. You may notice that one phrase or something like it occurs no less than nine times – see verses 13, 17, 20, 24, 27, 30, 35, 46 and 48: 'and he will sit on my throne; and he will sit on my throne; who will sit on the throne of my lord the king; and that he will sit on your throne; who should sit on the throne of my lord the king after him; and he will sit on my throne; and sit on my throne; Solomon has taken his seat on the royal throne; a successor on my throne today.' There need be no doubt about the subject of this chapter then – who sits on the throne!
Here we have three kings or possible kings, all from the same family – David, Adonijah and Solomon. They portray for us, successively, an old king leaving his throne behind, a pretender to the throne and the true king on his throne. Thus we learn about Solomon negatively by learning what he is not and then positively by learning about his accession.
You may wonder how such information can be of any use to us today but the question of who is on the throne is always highly relevant - not who is on the English throne or who rules America or Israel but who is the ultimate ruler of all. This chapter helps us think that matter through. So we will look at these three kings or would-be-kings and learn from them where to look.
David is, of course, a type of Jesus Christ in many ways but at this point he is weak and old, his kingship is coming to an end and he personifies the weak and transitory nature of all human kingship. We are told in verse 1 that he ‘was old and well advanced in years’. One of his big problems was that ‘he could not keep warm even when they put covers over him’. You may know that babies and old people are particularly susceptible to hypothermia because of their inability to shiver and so warm their bodies. That is how weak David was by this stage – too weak to even shiver. He was also getting out of touch with what was going on. This comes out in verse 18.
We are told that David’s servants adopted what seems to us a rather odd solution, one that sounds rather unethical. However, before we are too quick to jump to conclusions, we should remember that this is before the invention of central heating or electric blankets. It is surprising what has been done to deal with medical problems, especially in the past. I remember my father telling me about a boy he knew who had to eat live maggots to deal with a stomach growth!
So David’s servants say to him (verse 2) ‘Let us look for a young virgin to attend the king and take care of him. She can lie beside him so that our lord the king may keep warm.’ The idea of using another person to warm David up makes sense. But who? To sell the idea to David they had to make it sound attractive. So, we learn how ‘they searched throughout Israel for a beautiful girl and found Abishag, a Shunammite, and brought her to the king.’ Inevitably ‘The girl was very beautiful’. ‘She took care of the king and waited on him.’
The note – ‘but the king had no intimate relations with her’ is seen by some as further evidence of David’s decrepitude – the great lover can no longer perform! It is more likely that Abishag is introduced here partly to explain what Adonijah does later. The note is intended to clarify David’s relationship with her.
David’s weakness and old age here sum up the nature of human rule and leadership. For all its strengths, it is fundamentally weak and cannot last. Parents and husbands die. Preachers pass away. Political leaders do not last. We need to recognise this fundamental fact so that we do not put our ultimate trust in any merely human power. Psalm 146:3 and 118:9 admonish us 'Do not put your trust in princes, in mortal men, who cannot save … It is better to take refuge in the LORD than to trust in princes'.
Do not look to false, fading would-be kings like ambitious Adonijah
So with a weak and old king on the throne and nothing apparently yet certain about his successor, there was something of a power vacuum in Israel. Such times come to God’s kingdom, times of change and transition – how we react at such times is important. A passage like this encourages us to remember that through it all God is in control. If we look to him, all will be well. Such circumstances suit opportunists like David’s son Adonijah and the godly need to beware. We can say several things about such would-be kings. We begin with this one
At this time it was not automatically the eldest son who succeeded. As a senior son Adonijah felt his claim was as good as any and rather than waiting for David’s death he decided to push himself forward. Verse 5 'Now Adonijah, whose mother was Haggith, put himself forward and said, I will be king.'
He volunteered himself. It may surprise you to know how many people get to positions of power simply by pushing themselves forward. That is basically how Hitler came to power. Mere personal recommendation is not enough, however. Our leaders need to be those with a little more than a willingness to serve. When we choose our political leaders or elders and deacons in churches we need to do more than simply find volunteers! Our heroes should not just be those that the media promote either.
1. The Bible is sufficient. It teaches all we need to know for God’s glory and our salvation, what to believe and what to do. If not set out explicitly there, it can be logically deduced from it. Our need is not fresh revelation but better Bible knowledge. Study it to know what honours God, how to be saved, what to believe, how to live. Even less obvious things can be known by a more diligent study of its contents.
7. All things in Scripture are not alike plain in themselves, nor alike clear unto all. Yet those things which are necessary to be known, believed and observed for salvation are so clearly propounded and opened in some place of Scripture or other, that not only the learned but the unlearned, in a due use of ordinary means, may attain to a sufficient understanding of them.
1. The Bible is clear but not all parts are equally clear and some parts are less easy to understand. Also, some see things quicker than others. Don’t be surprised if there are parts that at first you find hard to understand.
2. However, the Bible is clear enough for both educated and uneducated, by ordinary means, to know all they need to know - what to believe and how to be saved. Never doubt that the Bible is clear enough for even the least educated to be saved if they are willing to hear.
3. The way to know how to be saved is to read the Bible and hear it preached. To be saved – read the Word and hear it preached. Pray that more will hear and be saved.
8. The Old Testament in Hebrew (which was the native language of the people of God of old) and the New Testament in Greek (which at the time of the writing of it was most generally known to the nations), being immediately inspired by God and by his singular care and providence kept pure in all ages, are therefore authentic; so as in all controversies of religion, the church is finally to appeal to them. But because these original tongues are not known to all the people of God, who have a right unto, and interest in the Scriptures, and are commanded in the fear of God to read and search them, therefore they are to be translated into the vulgar language of every nation unto which they come, that the Word of God dwelling plentifully in all, they may worship him in an acceptable manner, and through patience and comfort of the Scriptures may have hope.
1. The Bible, as originally given, is directly inspired by God. He has also watched over it so that we can still have its message today. Consider the Bible, as originally given, truly God-breathed.
2. The Bible has supreme authority for God's people, the church. Accept that our highest authority must always be the Bible.
3. All believers have a right and a duty to read and study the Bible so it should be translated for that to read it, each having his own copy. Be thankful for the Bible in your own language and read it every day.
4. This is how we can all know the riches in God’s Word and worship acceptably, full of hope. Reverently study the Bible and fill your mind with it so that you can worship him in an acceptable way and, helped by the Bible, be filled with hope.
9. The infallible rule of interpretation of Scripture is the Scripture itself and therefore when there is a question about the true and full sense of any Scripture (which is not manifold but one), it must be searched and known by other places that speak more clearly.
1. The only infallible rule for interpreting the Bible is the Bible itself. Get help from other authorities but don't make them your rule for understanding the Bible. Your rule for understanding the Bible should be the Bible itself.
2. The Bible is a unity and there are no real contradictions. Accept that though the Bible may appear to contradict itself at certain points it never does so in fact.
3. The clearer parts of the Bible should be used to interpret the less clear. Always understand the Bible on its own terms. Compare Scripture with Scripture. What we need is, as it were, two Bibles – one to interpret the other.
4. The Bible has only one meaning. It may have different applications or different fulfilments but there is only one true meaning.
10. The supreme judge by which all controversies of religion are to be determined and all decrees of councils, opinions of ancient writers, doctrines of men and private spirits are to be examined, and in whose sentence we are to rest, can be no other but *the Holy Scripture delivered by the Spirit, into which Scripture so delivered, our faith is finally resolved.*
1. The Bible is the supreme judge in every religious question. Accept that what the Bible says is the final judge in any and every religious question.
2. It is superior to statements by church councils, ancient writers and all other human opinions public or private. Beware of giving human opinion of any sort a higher place than the Bible. Even this confession is subject to the Bible.
3. Our faith must rest only on what God has said in the Bible through his Spirit. Be sure that all you believe is rooted only in what the Bible says.
It's easy to say I believe the Bible but we need to pin down what a person believes it says. Confessions of Faith are useful for
1 Public affirmation and defence of the truth
2 Providing a public standard of fellowship and discipline
3 Providing a concise standard for evaluating ministers of the Word
4 Giving us a sense of historical continuity
The 1689 Baptist (2nd London) Confession is the one I adhere to most closely. The briefer 1st London Confession was issued in 1644, the 2nd London was actually put together in 1677 but not published then, owing to persecution. Like the Congregationalist Savoy Declaration (1658) the 1689 closely follows, where it can, the Presbyterian Westminster Confession (1647).
1: The Holy Scriptures
1. The Holy Scripture is the only sufficient, certain, and infallible rule of all saving knowledge, faith and obedience. Although the light of nature and the works of creation and providence do so far manifest the goodness, wisdom and power of God, as to leave men inexcusable, yet are they not sufficient to give that knowledge of God and his will which is necessary unto salvation. Therefore it pleased the Lord at sundry times and in divers manners to reveal himself and to declare that his will unto his church and afterward, for the better preserving and propagating of the truth and for the more sure establishment and comfort of the church against the corruption of the flesh and the malice of Satan and of the world, to commit the same wholly unto writing; which maketh the Holy Scriptures to be most necessary, those former ways of God’s revealing his will unto his people being now ceased.
1. How to be saved, what saving faith is and how to live to please God is revealed in the Bible in sufficient detail, clearly enough and without errors. If you want to know how to be saved, what to believe or how to live as a Christian, look in the Bible. It's there!
2. Man’s conscience, creation and providence (general or natural revelation) are enough to teach us there is a good, wise and powerful God so disobedience is inexcusable. By nature we are ignorant of salvation but we do know God is there so we have no reason not to serve him. Stop making excuses and search the Bible to know God.
3. Because we don't know enough to be saved, it has pleased God at different times, in different ways to supply a special, supernatural revelation of himself to his chosen people. It is a mercy that God has revealed himself, something for which we should be very thankful.
4. So that the truth may be preserved, widely known, kept pure and help God's people despite the world, the flesh and the devil, these revelations were written down. The Bible is now the only source of these essential revelations. We ought to love and get to know the one book in which God shows us all we need to know.
2. Under the name of Holy Scripture, or the Word of God written, are now contained all the books of the Old and New Testaments, which are these:
OF THE OLD TESTAMENT: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 Samuel, 2 Samuel, 1 Kings, 2 Kings, 1 Chronicles, 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, The Song of Solomon, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi.
All of which are given by the inspiration of God, to be the rule of faith and life.
3. The books commonly called Apocrypha, not being of divine inspiration, are no part of the canon or rule of the Scripture, and, therefore, are of no authority to the church of God, nor to be any otherwise approved or made use of than other human writings.
1. Positively, the Bible contains all the books of Old and New Testaments. We ought to know that God’s revelation came in two stages and be able to see the differences between the two.
2. All 66 books are God breathed and are the only rule for what to believe and how to live. Believe that the Bible is from God and let it regulate all your beliefs and actions.
3. Negatively, the Apocrypha is not part of the Bible and deserves no more respect or use than any other human writing.
4. The authority of the Holy Scripture, for which it ought to be believed [and obeyed], dependeth not upon the testimony of any man or church, but wholly upon God (who is truth itself), the author thereof; therefore it is to be received because it is the Word of God.
5. We may be moved and induced by the testimony of the church of God to an high and reverent esteem of the Holy Scriptures; and the heavenliness of the matter, the efficacy of the doctrine, and the majesty of the style, the consent of all the parts, the scopeof the whole (which is to give all glory to God), the full discovery it makes of the only way of man’s salvation and many other incomparable excellencies and entire perfections thereof, are arguments whereby it doth abundantly evidence itself to be the Word of God; yet notwithstanding, our full persuasion and assurance of the infallible truth and divine authority thereof is from the inward work of the Holy Spirit bearing witness by and with the Word in our hearts.
1. We must accept the Bible as God's Word because of its own inherent authority not what the church or anyone else says. Accept the Bible for what it is. If we believe because the church says we should, the church becomes our highest authority.
3. To be entirely sure of the Bible's infallible truth and divine authority we need the Spirit’s direct inward witness through and with the Word. If you doubt the Bible's infallibility and authority, ask God’s Spirit to help you to see it.