Bonhoeffer uses a similar phrase 'worldly Christianity'. It's J Gresham Machen that I want to line up most closely with. See his Christianity and culture here. Having done commentaries on Proverbs (Heavenly Wisdom) and Song of Songs (Heavenly Love), a matching title for Ecclesiastes would be Heavenly Worldliness. For my stance on worldliness, see 3 posts here.

GBA 2013 Wednesday Morning 1

Our opening session was on that ever popular verse 1 Corinthians 9:22 and the speaker was Stephen Rees. It was very helpful.
He began by giving examples where people have used the verse to argue that
1. We must adopt our message
2. We must adopt our methods
3. We must also apply the principle to the structure and worship of our churches
Without expressing his opinion on the conclusions drawn, Stephen contested the use of 1 Corinthians 9:22 to support them. Paul's point rather is that although you may have the right to do a thing that does not mean that it is right to do it. Paul uses himself as an example of a man who has curtailed his own freedoms in order to serve others, especially those he is seeking to win to Christ. He is not saying he changes the message or method or does nothing in worship that will offend the Jews. Rather, he is talking about personal lifestyle. When he is mixing with Jews, he keeps the Jewish rules and when he is with Gentiles he does not. He refuses to maintain his personal preferences. He is not therefore willing to do anything. He is free not to have a wife but he is not free to be polygamous, say. In Paul's case he is a missionary and so he is thinking of not offending the unbeliever. In the case of the Corinthians the chief concern is fellow believers. Today, we have to think of both sorts when we make lifestyle choices.
Believers
1. Issues where the danger is that a Christian is tempted into doing what is against the other's conscience (eg inviting certain people to drink alcohol or watch a video)
2. Issues where the danger is that your lifestyle tempts other Christians to unhelpful reactions (eg rich people being ostentatious or the poor making the rich feel bad)
3. Issues where the danger is that a wedge is driven between you and others in the church (eg Facebook or non-Facebook)
4. Issues where the danger is that cultural differences become a cause of tension
Unbelievers
1. Issues where the danger is that the unbeliever's sin is condoned
2. Issues where the danger is that your lifestyle choices produce in unbelievers unhelpful reactions
3. Issues where the danger is that a wedge is driven between you and the unbeliever
4. Issues where the danger is that cultural differences become a cause of tension
Taking Paul's words seriously is going to affect every decision we make. it is not easy.
As for the message, we have to preach the gospel however offensive it may be (cf Christ urging the Jews to eat his blood, Paul preaching Christ crucified).
As for the method, again Jesus and Paul are willing to be countercultural at many points (cf Christ putting others above his family, eating the Passover with his friends not his family; Paul not cutting his hair at Corinth and working as a tentmaker)
Notice too that Paul was happy to be counter-cultural in many ways, eg no female leadership, no frenzied worship, slaves and masters on equal footing.
What should we aim at? Obeying God's commands. That covers a lot but not everything. Man is created in God's image and all cultural practices are to be judged as to whether they are Godlike. Our aim is to be as like God as we can not as like the world as we can.

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