I came across this early on in George Orwell's Down and out in Paris and London. He says
"Complete inertia is my chief memory of hunger; that, and being obliged to spit very frequently, and the spittle being curiously white and flocculent, like cuckoo-spit."
It simply means having a fluffy or woolly appearance. Perhaps it has the same root as flock or what about floss?
Darwin uses it in his Voyage of the Beagle
"The weather had been fine and clear, and in the morning the air was full of
patches of the flocculent web, as on an autumnal
day in England."
Bonhoeffer uses a similar phrase 'worldly Christianity'. It's J Gresham Machen that I want to line up most closely with. See his Christianity and culture here. Having done commentaries on Proverbs (Heavenly Wisdom) and Song of Songs (Heavenly Love), a matching title for Ecclesiastes would be Heavenly Worldliness. For my stance on worldliness, see 3 posts here.